Kimchi is a Korean staple, most often consisting of spicy, fermented cabbage. It’s a pre and probiotic, full of beneficial micro-organisms which are thought to be helpful in supporting our gut microbiome.
Home fermenting is relatively easy to do. You can buy specialist preserving equipment if you want, but really all you need (other than the raw ingredients, bowl, chopping board and knife) is a glass jar and some kind of weight to submerge the prepared vegetables in a brine. You can buy specific glass fermentation weights, or alternatively you can just use a robust plastic bag filled with brine (eg. a ziplock freezer bag which can be washed and reused).
Fine sea salt – 1/4 cup (approx 60g)
Chilli flakes – 1-2 teaspoons
Garlic – 4 cloves
1 tablespoon fresh ginger – grated
Seaweed flakes – 1 tsp (optional)
Maple syrup – 1 tsp
Sweet paprika – 1 tsp
2 small carrots – grated
1 bunch spring onions – chopped
Wash the cabbage, remove the outer leaves and set these aside
Chop the cabbage up into approximately 1-2cm slices and place in a large bowl
Dissolve 1/4 cup of sea salt in 1000ml of cold water to make a brine
Pour this over the cabbage and place a plate over the cabbage to make sure it stays submerged in the brine
Allow to soak overnight or for approximately 6-8 hrs
Drain the cabbage and reserve the brine
Rinse the cabbage in cold water, pressing some of the liquid out
Add the grated carrot and chopped spring onion to the bowl and mix with the cabbage
Place the chilli flakes, garlic, ginger, paprika, seaweed and maple syrup in a blender and blend together to a rough paste
Add the paste to the cabbage mix and use your hands to combine thoroughly
Now pack the mixture tightly into a clean preserving jar, leaving a few centimetres clear at the top of the jar
Cover the mixture with one of the outer cabbage leaves and pour some of the reserved brine into the jar so that the contents are just covered in liquid
Place a fermentation weight on top of the leaf to help ensure everything remains submerged in the brine. If you don’t have a fermentation weight, take an empty freezer bag, place it inside the jar on top of the mixture, open it and part fill it with some brine, until it fills the remaining space in the jar, then seal the bag
Place a lid lightly on the jar (don’t screw it on tight) and leave in a cool place out of direct sunlight (put the jar on a plate or bowl in case of overflow)
It’s normal to get carbon dioxide bubbles or a foam forming on top of the mixture
After approximately 5 days, transfer the jar to the fridge
The kimchi should taste pleasantly sour and its flavour should continue to develop over time
However, if it’s mouldy, slimy or tastes bad, put it on the compost!
It doesn’t really taste much like any meatloaf I remember from childhood, but I reckon it’s delicious in its own right. The key here is not to over blend the ingredients or you can end up with a bit of a mush. If you’ve got time, allow the loaf to stand for a while as this allows it to firm up a bit.
2 cans chickpeas
2 medium carrots
2 large celery sticks
1 medium onion
1 medium sweet potato (approx 150g)
2 garlic cloves
2 cups breadcrumbs (can be fresh or dry)
2 tablespoons flax seeds
2 table spoons olive oil
1-2 table spoons tamari
3-4 tablespoons worcestershire sauce
2 tablespoons tomato paste
1/4 cup tomato paste
2 table spoons maple syrup
2 tablespoons apple cider vinegar
1 tablespoon tamari
1 teaspoon paprika
Pre-heat the oven to 170ºC
Roughly chop up all the veggies
Place all the ingredients in a food processor and blend
You may need to do this in batches depending on the size of your food processor
Be very careful not to over blend; you’re aiming for a consistency that’s chunky not mushy
Place the mixture in a loaf pan lined with baking paper, and pack it down with a spoon or spatula
Bake the loaf in the oven for 30 minutes
Meanwhile, mix the ingredients for the maple glaze and combine thoroughly
After 30 minutes spread the maple glaze over the loaf and bake for another 25 mins
Homemade mince pies are quick and easy to make, and a world apart from shop bought ones, which tend to be massively loaded with refined sugar.
I’ve given you three options to experiment with for the short crust pastry. All vegan, but using different types of oil/ fat. They each give a slightly different texture and flavour.
The luxury mincemeat requires a bit of advance preparation to allow it to mature, however you could happily use it straight away, omitting the brandy and substituting with a grated apple and the juice of 1 orange. Alternatively, try the quick mincemeat recipe instead.
Makes approximately 12 mince pies
200g plain flour
100g coconut oil
5 tablespoons rice milk (or any dairy free milk)
2 cups plain flour
110g dairy free spread
1/2 cup rice milk
2 cups plain flour
1/2 cup olive oil
1/2 cup rice milk
450g mixed dried fruit (currants, raisins, sultanas)
100g dried apricots
2 tablespoons orange marmalade
1 teaspoon ground mixed spice
1/2 teaspoon grated nutmeg
grated zest of 1 orange
1 cup raisins
1 cup currants
1 cup cranberries
1 handful of dried apricots – chopped
1 apple – grated
1 orange – zest and juice
1 lemon – zest and juice
1 teaspoon cinnamon
1 teaspoon nutmeg
1 teaspoon ginger
1 tablespoon of olive oil
Combine all the mincemeat ingredients in a large bowl and mix thoroughly
Cover and allow to stand in a cool place for 2 days. Stir occasionally.
Pot into sterilised jars and store in a cool place. Allow to mature for a couple of weeks before using
Alternative quick mincemeat:
Combine all the ingredients in a large bowl and mix together
Transfer to a saucepan, heat gently and simmer for 30 minutes
Pastry and pie preparation:
Preheat the oven to 180ºC
Combine the flour and oil in a bowl and rub together with your fingertips until it becomes the consistency of breadcrumbs
Add the milk, stir and then mix with your hands until it becomes a smooth dough. You don’t need to knead!
Allow the dough to rest for 30 minutes
Flour a work surface and roll out the dough thinly (4-5 mmm)
Cut out 12 circles using a plain or fluted cookie cutter
There should be enough pastry remaining to cut out 12 smaller shapes for the lids (stars, trees etc)
Place the circle bases into a 12 hole tart tray
Add 1 spoonful of mincemeat to each; don’t overload otherwise the mincemeat bubbles and leaks over the edge whilst cooking, making the pies difficult to remove from the tray
Place the stars/ tree lids on top of the mincemeat
Place the tray in the oven and bake for 20-22 minutes until golden brown
Remove, place on a wire rack and allow to cool for a few minutes before dusting the tops with icing sugar
Are you confused by all the contradictory dietary advice out there?
Should you go low fat or low carb? Vegan or paleo? Ketogenic? Mediterranean? Pescatarian?
The truth is, it’s extremely difficult to prove that there’s one universal diet that’s superior to all others, certainly in terms of its effects on health and peak performance.
One thing is clear, we shouldn’t be eating the prevailing low quality Western diet, which is high in refined sugar, processed and red meat and saturated fat. This pattern of eating has resulted in 2 billion people being overweight or obese, and has fuelled the increasing prevalence of non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer (1,2).
In reality, many people will derive significant health benefits if they stick to a few simple, evidence based food principles.
However, if we really want to answer the question of “what should we eat?” then we must also consider planetary health, as this is inextricably linked to our own health and survival.
And when we take the planet into consideration, the answer is very clear: we should eat a plant-based diet.
This is the conclusion of a number large-scale, mainstream scientific studies (3,4,5), including the recently published literature review by the EAT-Lancet Commission (1).
So why is a plant-based diet best for the planet?
To answer this we need to look at our current system of food production, which we now understand to be the single largest contributor to environmental degradation.
Food systems account for up to 30% of global greenhouse gas emissions(1,3,5). However, climate change is only part of the story. Food systems drive a range of serious environmental issues that now threaten human health and survival, including biodiversity loss, eutrophication and depletion of fresh water supplies.
Food production is the largest cause of global land-use change, with 40% of terrestrial land used for crops and grazing. This has resulted in massive biodiversity loss, to the extent that we are witnessing the Earth’s 6th Mass Extinction Event. Species are being lost 100-1000 times faster than the natural background rate. 80% of extinction threats to birds and mammals are due to agriculture (1).
The impact of humans and our agriculture is now so great that it has drastically altered the make-up of global biomass (the total weight of living matter in a given area).
Humans comprise just 0.01% of Earth’s total biomass, but our impact is disproportionately large; 96% of all mammals are either humans (36%) or our livestock (60%) – mainly cattle and pigs. Only 4% of mammals are wild. 70% of all birds on the planet are farmed poultry. Only 30% are wild (6).
Food production is responsible for 78% of eutrophication (1,5). This refers to the excessive application of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilisers, which are washed off into streams and rivers, causing algal blooms and hypoxic conditions in freshwater and marine ecosystems, which results in widespread coastal “dead zones,” devoid of aquatic life.
In areas where fish still exist, 60% of the world’s fish stocks are now fully fished, and 30% are overfished. Catches by global marine fisheries have been declining since 1996 (1).
The overall negative impacts of our food systems are very clear, but we still need to eat. So what we really want to know is: which food products are ecologically sustainable, and which are harmful.
To answer this, Joseph Poore and Thomas Nemecek performed the largest study to date of the impacts of agriculture on the environment, and their results were published in Science in 2018 (5).
They undertook a global analysis of data from 38,700 farms in 119 countries, looking at 40 food products, in terms of their effects on five key environmental indicators: greenhouse gas emissions, land use, acidification, eutrophication and freshwater withdrawals.
They found that even the most sustainable animal products exceed the average impacts of plant protein. As a result, if we were to switch to a plant based diet, it would reduce land use by 76%, greenhouse gas emissions by 49%, acidification by 50%, eutrophication by 49% and freshwater use by 19%.
In countries such as the UK, Australia and the USA, where meat consumption is 3 times the global average, the effects would be even greater.
The authors concluded that moving from a meat-based to plant-based diet has “transformative potential” and that avoiding meat and dairy is the single biggest way we can reduce our ecological impact.
But what exactly should we eat? What does a diet that is both healthy and ecologically sustainable look like?
This key question was finally addressed by EAT-Lancet Commission (a joint project by the Norway based NGO EAT and the Lancet Medical Journal), which undertook an extensive literature review and published its results earlier this year (1).
They came up with a universal healthy reference diet, or Planetary Diet, which is predominantly plant-based, provides 2500 kcal per day, and consists largely of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, legumes, nuts and unsaturated oils. It specifies a low to moderate amount of seafood and poultry, and no or low amounts of red meat, processed meat, added sugar, refined grains and starchy vegetables.
In practice, the Planetary Diet is similar to a Mediterranean or Okinawan Diet, which for many Europeans represents quite a shift in the way they eat. It would involve a 77% reduction in red meat consumption (by allowing only 1 beef burger per week), 15 times more intake of nuts and seeds, 2 servings of fish per week, 1-2 eggs per week, and 1 glass of milk per day (or 250g of full fat milk products).
So, having read this, are you now going to adopt the Planetary Diet, or perhaps go completely vegan? Maybe not…
Behavioural change is notoriously difficult. Even if there was widespread acceptance of the problems associated with our current level of consumption of animal products, awareness of an issue is no guarantee that people will adopt a more sensible path, as most health practitioners will attest.
This is certainly true for plant-based dietary change, probably because for many societies, eating animal products is the traditional, dominant eating pattern. A rejection of meat represents a rejection of social norms. It’s also important to appreciate that food confers much more than nutritional needs. It’s a source of pleasure, personal identity and economic status. In many developing countries eating meat is aspirational and symbolic of wealth. For some people, meat is associated with masculinity.
This is borne out by studies of public perceptions surrounding food impacts and dietary change, which suggest that there can be scepticism of the scientific evidence, resistance to the concept of reducing meat intake, and that non-food related behaviour change is deemed more acceptable (7).
However, eventually a threshold is usually reached, beyond which our resistance to change is overpowered by the realisation of the gravity of a situation, accompanied by a sense of urgency; such as when a patient receives a diagnosis of a life-threatening condition and finally feels compelled to make radical lifestyle changes. Perhaps as a society we are approaching that point with environmental degradation and non-communicable diseases.
Recently it feels as if the tide may be turning, with the global support for Greta Thunberg and the climate strikes, the Extinction Rebellion protests, and the increasing cultural acceptability of plant-based eating.
Make no mistake, we have very little time left to limit climate change to a survivable level and prevent further irreversible biodiversity loss. We urgently need to make transformative changes if we hope to do this, and there is no doubt that a global shift towards healthy, plant-based diets represents a very powerful tool.
If you still need some convincing, or are finding it difficult to make the leap to a more plant-based lifestyle, here are a few tips and suggestions:
First, watch the movie “Cowspiracy” (you can find it on Netflix).
Start experimenting with plant-based eating. There are now tonnes of resources out there (even confirmed omnivorous chefs such as Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall and Jamie Oliver are jumping on the bandwagon). The key is to find a tribe that suits you.
Willett W, Rockström J, Loken B, Springmann M, Lang T, Vermeulen S, et al. Food in the Anthropocene: the EAT–Lancet Commission on healthy diets from sustainable food systems. The Lancet. 2019 2019/02/02/;393(10170):447-92.
Afshin A, Sur PJ, Fay KA, Cornaby L, Ferrara G, Salama JS, et al. Health effects of dietary risks in 195 countries, 1990–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. The Lancet. 2019;393(10184):1958-72.
Aleksandrowicz L, Green R, Joy EJM, Smith P, Haines A. The Impacts of Dietary Change on Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Land Use, Water Use, and Health: A Systematic Review. PLOS ONE. 2016;11(11):e0165797.
Clark M, Tilman D. Comparative analysis of environmental impacts of agricultural production systems, agricultural input efficiency, and food choice. Environmental Research Letters. 2017 2017/06/01;12(6):064016.
Poore J, Nemecek T. Reducing food’s environmental impacts through producers and consumers. Science. 2018;360(6392):987.
Bar-On YM, Phillips R, Milo R. The biomass distribution on Earth. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2018;115(25):6506.
Macdiarmid JI, Douglas F, Campbell J. Eating like there’s no tomorrow: Public awareness of the environmental impact of food and reluctance to eat less meat as part of a sustainable diet. Appetite. 2016 2016/01/01/;96:487-93.
If the tofu based chocolate mousse doesn’t do it for you, try this avocado based version. Most people seem to credit Laura Coxeter as the inspiration for this recipe and I would certainly agree. I first saw her when she appeared on River Cottage a few years ago and made a raw chocolate ganache tart. This is just a simplified version.
2 large ripe avocados
Coconut oil – 50g
Cacao (or cocoa) powder – 70g
Maple syrup (or honey) – 2 tablespoons
Pecans (or almonds or walnuts or just use a mixture!) – 1/2 cup
Dates – 1/2 cup
If you’re making the biscuity base, place the nuts and dates in a blender and blend until finely chopped
Scrape out the mixture and put aside
Gently heat the coconut oil in a pan so it melts. Allow to cool.
Now place the avocados, coconut oil, maple syrup and cocoa powder in the blender
Blend until smooth. This may take a few minutes.
Place a large spoonful of the base mixture at the bottom of a glass (or bowl) and press it down firmly
Add a few spoonfuls of the mousse mixture on top
If you wish, you can add a third layer of berry compote – just heat a few handfuls of frozen berries in a pan until soft and mushy
Repeat steps 6-8 for the remaining 3 portions
Place the 4 glasses in the fridge for an hour or two and then serve